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A Revisionist Historian Looks at Religious Toleration
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Add to cart. Be the first to write a review About this product. About this product Product Information A thorough revision of Human Developmental Neuropsychology, this book is the most detailed and complete overview of child neuropsychology available today. It begins with a brief introduction to the nervous system, including an up-to-date review of theories of lateralization and sex differences. The second part presents a discussion of newborn and infant assessment, critical periods, disconnection syndromes and other relevant issues in developmental neuropsychology.
How the Idea of Religious Toleration Came to the West
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Additional Product Features Dewey Edition. Wilson, Los Angeles Times Book Review, A deeply scholarly but ultimately engaging argument for the origins of religious toleration in Western culture since the Enlightenment. Combining elements of theology, philosophy, history, and politics, this intellectual history is less focused on thinkers than on a singular ideal: how the concept of religious toleration and freedom was born. At the end of the book, Dr.
Zagorin expresses the hope that religious freedom may extend to the parts of the Islamic world and the remaining communist countries where it doesn't exist today. Bresler, Theology Today, "Americans who regard Islamic fundamentalists as peculiarly intolerant have much to learn from distinguished historian Zagorin. A book to dispel complacency about a priceless liberty. In this superb intellectual history, noted early modern historian Zagorin traces the evolution of this concept from the first through the18th centuries; a brief conclusion carries the story to the present.
A well-written tract for our times. Show More Show Less. An ethical-liberal, neo-Lockean justification argues that respect is owed to individuals as personally and ethically autonomous beings with the capacity to choose, possibly revise and realize an individual conception of the good. This capacity is to be respected and furthered because it is seen as a necessary though not sufficient condition for attaining the good life cf.
Kymlicka Hence the argument presupposes a specific thesis about the good life—i. One may doubt whether such a way of life will necessarily be subjectively more fulfilling or objectively more valuable than one adopted in a more traditional way, without the presence of a range of options to choose from. Apart from that, the ethical-liberal theory could lead to a perfectionist justification of policies designed to further individual autonomy that could have a paternalistic character and lack toleration for non-liberal ways of life. In other words, there is the danger of an insufficient distinction between the components of objection and rejection mentioned above section 1.
Thus, an alternative, neo-Baylean justification of the respect conception seeks to avoid a particular conception of the good life, relying instead on the discursive principle of justification which says that every norm that is to be binding for a plurality of persons, especially norms that are the basis of legal coercion, must be justifiable with reasons that are reciprocally acceptable to all affected as free and equal persons.
Thus toleration consists of the insight that reasons of ethical objection , even if deeply held, cannot be valid as general reasons of rejection so long as they are reciprocally rejectable as belonging to a conception of the good or true way of life that is not and need not be shareable. With such a reflexive turn in the debate about toleration, a number of questions arise as to the alleged superior validity of the principle of justification and the plausibility of a neo-Baylean epistemology distinguishing between faith and knowledge.
Any concrete use of the concept of toleration is always situated in particular contexts of normative and political conflict, especially in societies that are transforming towards increased religious, ethical and cultural pluralism — even more so when societies are marked by an increased awareness of such pluralism, with some cultural groups raising new claims for recognition and others looking at their co-citizens with suspicion, despite having lived together for some time in the past.
These social conflicts always involve group-based claims for recognition, both in the legal and in the social sphere see generally Patten , Galeotti Contemporary debate has focused on questions of respecting particular religious practices and beliefs, ranging from certain manners of dress, including the burka, to certain demands to be free from blasphemy and religious insults Laborde , Newey , Nussbaum , Leiter , Taylor and Stepan , Modood , Forst , ch.
The general questions raised here include: What is special about religious as opposed to other cultural identities Laborde and Bardon ? When is equal respect called for and what exactly does it imply with respect to, for example, norms of gender equality see Okin et al. What role do past injustices play in weighing claims for recognition, and how much room can there be for autonomous forms of life in a deeply pluralistic society Tully , Williams ?
As much as a politics of toleration aims to express mutual respect, it also involves disagreement, mutual criticism, and rejection.
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We still face the challenge of examining the grounds and forms of a politics of toleration as an emancipatory form of politics. The Concept of Toleration and its Paradoxes 2.
How the Idea of Religious Toleration Came to the West
Four Conceptions of Toleration 3. The History of Toleration 4. Justifying Toleration 5. The Concept of Toleration and its Paradoxes It is necessary to differentiate between a general concept and more specific conceptions of toleration see also Forst Four Conceptions of Toleration The following discussion of four conceptions of toleration is not to be understood as the reconstruction of a linear historical succession. The History of Toleration In the course of the religious-political conflicts throughout Europe that followed the Reformation, toleration became one of the central concepts of political-philosophical discourse, yet its history reaches much further back into antiquity for the following, see esp.
Justifying Toleration Many of the systematic arguments for toleration—be they religious, pragmatic, moral or epistemological—can be used as a justification for more than one of the conceptions of toleration mentioned above section 2. The Politics of Toleration Any concrete use of the concept of toleration is always situated in particular contexts of normative and political conflict, especially in societies that are transforming towards increased religious, ethical and cultural pluralism — even more so when societies are marked by an increased awareness of such pluralism, with some cultural groups raising new claims for recognition and others looking at their co-citizens with suspicion, despite having lived together for some time in the past.
Bibliography Augustine, , Letters , Vol. I 1—82 , Vol. II 83— , tr. Barnett, B.
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