PDF Seven Solid States;: An Introduction to the Chemistry and Physics of Solids

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When the temperature of the water goes up, the molecules get more excited and bounce around a lot more.

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If you give a liquid water molecule enough energy, it escapes the liquid phase and becomes a gas. The extra energy allows the molecules to change states. Have you ever noticed that you can smell a turkey dinner after it starts to heat up? As the energy of the molecules inside the turkey heat up, they escape as a gas.

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You are able to smell the volatile compounds that are mixed in the air around you. The key word to notice is "physical". Matter only moves from one phase to another by physical means. If energy is added increasing the temperature or if energy is taken away freezing something , you can create a physical change. Changing the pressure of a system is another way to create a physical change.

If you place a glass of liquid water on a table, it will just sit there. If you place a glass of water in a vacuum chamber and lower the pressure, you can begin to watch the water boil and the water molecules move to a gas phase. When molecules move from one phase to another they are still the same substance.

Solids in Ceramics

There is water vapor above a pot of boiling water. That vapor or gas can condense and become a drop of liquid water in the cooler air. If you put that liquid drop in the freezer, it would become a solid piece of ice. No matter what physical state it was in, it was always water. Even though the physical state changed, the chemical properties were the same. On the other hand, a chemical change would build or break the chemical bonds in the water H 2 O molecules.

If you added a carbon C atom, you would create formaldehyde H 2 CO. If you added an oxygen O atom, you would create hydrogen peroxide H 2 O 2.

Neither new compound is anything like the original water molecule. Generally, changes in the physical state do not lead to any chemical change in compounds. States of Matter Examples. A Liquid Ocean There are many liquids around you. Oceans, lakes, and rivers are good examples of liquid water H 2 O. Types of bonding covalent, ionic, metallic bonding; hydrogen and van der Waals. Diffraction from periodic structures Chapter 2. Reciprocal lattice; Brillouin zones.

CA5020 Principles of Solids and Surfaces

Laue condition and Bragg law. Structure factor; defects. Methods of structure analysis. Lattice vibrations and thermal properties Chapter 3.

Doing Solids: Crash Course Chemistry #33

Elastic properties of crystals; elastic waves. Models of lattice vibrations. Theories of phonon specific heat and thermal conduction. Anharmonicity ; thermal expansion.

Crystalline and Amorphous Solids: Explanation, Differences, Examples, etc

Raman Scattering by phonons. Electrons in metals Chapters 4—5. Free electron theory of metals. Fermi Statistics. Band theory of solids. Semiconductors Chapters 6—7. Band structure.

Electron statistics; carrier concentration and transport; conductivity; mobility. Impurities and defects.

Magnetic field effects: cyclotron resonance and Hall effect. Optical properties; absorption, photoconductivity and luminescence. Basic semiconductor devices. Dielectric properties of solids Chapters 8. Dielectric constant and polarizability susceptibility. Dipolar polarizability, ionic and electronic polarizability. Piezoelectricity; pyro- and ferroelectricity. Light propagation in solids. Magnetism Chapters 9. Magnetic susceptibility. Classification of materials; diamagnetism, paramagnetism.

Ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism.

Crystalline and Amorphous Solids

Magnetic resonance. Multiferroic Materials. Superconductivity Chapter Assignments will be due bi-weekly, usually on Tuesdays. Assignments are due at the beginning of class. Homework problems, lectures, and text readings will form the basis of the exam problems.