Beyond independence for France, the general sought diplomatic and strategic autonomy for Europe, which meant a drastic reform of NATO that required broad support from France's European partners.
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He had not succeeded at the time he left office, but French policy has exhibited strong continuities ever since -- as has America's desire to remain strategically preeminent in Europe. As Bozo puts it, "the French 'difference' has become less systematic" than under de Gaulle, but "European goals do remain and they are on the agenda more than ever" -- as the embryonic European foreign and security policy demonstrates.
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Europe, De Gaulle & the Deterrent
The German Marshall Fund of the United States
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